>From the APC blog. Please add your voice here... There are also APC
blogs in Spanish and French getting underway. FN
Making the ride to cyberspace less costly, bumpy
By FN (Frederick Noronha) 14/11/2005 08:08 [Access, ICT policy,
Communication rights, Content & language]
En route to the promised global village, the information superhighway is
plagued by poor access and high fares that the bulk of this planet
simply cannot afford. Reducing international internet costs is an
important priority, underlined in a set of recommendations from the APC
made to the WSIS stresses.Read more...
Crucial drafting session in Tunis on internet governance
By APCNews 13/11/2005 20:40 [Internet governance]
Late on Sunday night, November 13, 2005, an assembly of about 100 people
agreed to a series of minimal points of common ground related to
internet governance in Tunis. These points were then to be reported back
to the general plenary of what is called the resumed PrepCom 3 meeting
of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) for definitive
negotiation and implementation. Read more...
Some figures... and hard facts
By FN (Frederick Noronha) 13/11/2005 20:24 [Communication rights]
Some figures, and hard facts, from a Highway Africa article, titled ICT4
All expo to attract 40,000 participants: "According to the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU), the 942 million people living in the
world's developed economies enjoy five times better access to fixed and
mobile phone services, nine times better access to Internet services,
and own 13 times more personal computers than the 85 per cent of the
world's population living in low and lower-middle income countries. ITU
also estimates that 800,000 villages still lack connection by telephone
line, the Internet or any other modern ICT." Read more...
Don't take pictures@WSIS-Tunis
By Shahzad (BytesForAll, Pakistan) 13/11/2005 18:02 [Civil society
participation, Communication rights]
Maxigas -- a friend from Hungary -- and myself had the opportunity to go
to the Tunis City Centre last afternoon, just to have a feel of the city
and get to know a little more about Tunis. The atmosphere seemed quite
festive, and preparations for the WSIS are in full swing. Green plants
are being transported in numbers and transplanted on roadsides and
important squares, large pictures of the Tunisian President are
installed everywhere, and even most of the banners also carry his
pictures welcoming the WSIS delegates ;) But questions remain....
Some voices... about Tunis
By FN 13/11/2005 16:43 [Media & ICTs, WSIS implementation]
How's the world comprehending Tunis? From disinterest to unheard voices,
bewilderment, hidden agendas and nationalistic positions... all these
seem to be the trends emerging from the media conference on November
2005's World Summit on the Information Society at Tunisia. More so, if
one looks at the media from a Southern perspective. Read more...
The WSIS is _not_ in Tunis
By maxigas 13/11/2005 07:45 [Local ICT tactics, WSIS implementation]
Yesterday me and Shahzad had a chance to see Tunis in all its WSIS
splendour. Tunis as a city has been completely appropriated by the WSIS
campaign. Public spaces where people lead their daily lives are heavily
marked by a campaign about an event that they have no meaningful way to
experience, and that will perhaps not bring any lasting good for their
country. Read more...
New book... via Tunis
By Partha Pratim Sarker 12/11/2005 08:23
Word Matters Multicultural perspectives on information societies has
been described as "a collective work by some 30 authors from civil
societies all over the world, deciphers the central concepts of the
'information society'." Read more...
Ultimate webmaster, citizens' voice
By FN 12/11/2005 08:03 [Internet governance, Civil society
Might interest you: Inter-Press Service has this story U.S. Fights to
Remain the Ultimate Webmaster which says that international efforts to
break down the digital barriers facing the world's poor will backfire if
governments fail to work out their differences on the issue of internet
governance. Meanwhile, here's the website for the Citizens' Summit on
the Information Society (CSIS). It was launched on November 10. Read
Technorati links (2488 and growing) By FN 12/11/2005 07:40
Technorati.com, the search engine for blogs, throws up a total of 2,488
posts related to the WSIS among the 21 million sites and 1.7 billion
links that it tracks. Read more...
WSIS Panel on WIPO and IPRs (Nov 16) By Al Alegre 12/11/2005 07:19
Thought this -- IPJ at WSIS:A parallel event to be held at the World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis -- would be of
interest. Not sure if it conflicts with any events. Probably will :-).
Gender voices from Tunis
By Katerina Fialova 12/11/2005 05:20 [Civil society participation,
Gender & ICTs]
Here's some information about GenderIT.org coverage planned for the WSIS
at Tunis in mid-November 2005. See details of what's expected via
websites, blogs, RSS feeds and more, to keep cyberspace informed about
what's emerging. Read more...
APC ... reflecting the WSIS By FN 12/11/2005 04:24 [Civil society
Some of APC's plans for reflecting what's happening at Tunis include its
English and Spanish websites and a blog in French These blogs aim to be
a mix of indepth structured articles plus notes and comment from the APC
team in Tunis, and anyone else who would like to write. It's open to the
public to post items and comments, subject to posts being relevant to
the theme. Read more...
APC... on internet governance By APC 11/11/2005 18:05 [Internet
APC has participated extensively in the internet governance process at
the World Summit on Information Society. Out of this participation and
in collaboration with other partners, including members of the WSIS
civil society internet governance caucus, APC has crystallized a set of
recommendations with regard to internet governance ahead of the final
Summit in Tunis in November 2005. Read more...
Blog links By FN (Frederick Noronha) 11/11/2005 17:50 [Communication
Wikipedia's entry on the WSIS has this useful set of links to some other
blogs on this theme. There's the WSISBlogs.org, a multilingual coalition
of bloggers attending WSIS; includes text, photos, podcasts and video;
apart from WSIS wire news on the summit; iwitness, offering debate, news
and resources for "journalists creating a fairer information society"
and The Daily Summit - WSIS and similar World Summit coverage by the
British Council Science Team (with items dating back to 2003 and 2004,
at the time of blogging). Read more...
IPS, WSIS and paedophile issues By Frederick Noronha 11/11/2005 15:56
[Laws & regulation] From my RSS-feed, I just came across this story
from one of my favourite news sources -- IPS filing from Bangkok --
that makes a case on why the information society must block
paedophiles. Read more...
Looking for environmental activists By Milena B. 11/11/2005 06:59
[Environment & ICTs]
Just curious whether environmental sustainability and ICTs is taking
place somewhere in the WSIS docs at all ;-) It will be good to know if
apart from BlueLink, whether there are other NGOs interested to stand up
for the issue of environmental sustainability in Tunis. Read more...
Welcome to the APC WSIS blog By Karen Higgs• 08/11/2005 16:57
APC will be producing two APCNews/APCNoticias specials direct from WSIS
and for the first time, original content in French. Watch our for our
trilingual English-Spanish-French blogs! Read more...
_/ Frederick Noronha | Independent Journalist | Ph 832.2409490
_/ Goa India | fred(a)bytesforall.org | http://fn.notlong.com
_/ Mobile: 0 9822 122436 | http://fn-at-google.notlong.com
EDUCATION INDIA: Relevant discussions from the world of education
http://puggy.symonds.net/pipermail/education-india/ (See archives)
Just sharing these figuress downloaded from a Tunis 2005-related
The world’s most diverse region, Asia-Pacific’s 41 economies span 30% of
the world’s land mass, encompass 3’500 languages, and are home to 57% of
the world’s population (or 3.6 billion people).
Nowhere is the digital divide more pronounced. Internet penetration
ranges from below 1% in countries like Bangladesh, Cambodia and Lao, to
above 65% in countries like Australia and the Republic of Korea. Mobile
penetration ranges from below 1% in countries like Bhutan, Myanmar,
Nepal and Papua New Guinea to 90% or more in countries like Hong Kong
(China) and Singapore.
China remains the region’s powerhouse. During 2004, the country added an
average 5.4 million new mobile subscribers every month.
China already represents almost 50% of the entire Asian mobile market in
terms of subscriber numbers, yet domestic penetration still hovers at
around just 25%. That translates into another one billion more potential
India has overtaken China to become one of the region’s fastest-growing
mobile markets, with growth rates of over 90% per annum every year since
1999. With just total mobile penetration rates of just over 4%,
potential for growth is enormous.
The Republic of Korea leads the world in broadband penetration, with
high-speed lines serving more than a quarter of the population.
Did you know that . . . ?
Figures can paint a striking picture of the ICT landscape around the
world. ITU provides some interesting snapshots, drawn from its 2004 ICT
World Telecommunication Indicators Database.
* In 2004, less than 3 out of every 100 Africans use the Internet,
compared with an average of 1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the
G8 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the
UK and the US).
* There are roughly around the same total number of Internet users
in the G8 countries as in the whole rest of the world combined:
* 429 million Internet users in G8
* 444 million Internet users in non-G8
* The G8 countries are home to just 15% of the world’s population
- but almost 50% of the world’s total Internet users.
* It is estimated that top 20 countries in terms of Internet
bandwidth are home to roughly 80% of all Internet users
* There are more than 8 times as many Internet users in the US
than on the entire African continent.
* There are more than three times as many Internet users in Japan
as on the entire African continent.
* There are more than twice as many Internet users in Germany than
on the entire African continent.
* The entire African continent - home to over 50 countries - has
fewer Internet users than France alone.
* There are more Internet users in Seoul (Republic of Korea), than
all of sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa.
* There are more Internet users in London than in the whole of
* Switzerland, host of the first World Summit on the Information
Society, has five times the Internet penetration rate of
Tunisia, host of the second Summit.
* Discrepancies in international Internet bandwidth - the critical
infrastructure that dictates the speed at which websites in
other countries can be accessed - are nothing short of
astounding. Tiny Denmark has more than twice the international
Internet bandwidth that the whole of Latin American and the
* The high cost of international bandwidth is often a major
constraint, with developing countries often having to pay the
full cost of a link to a hub in a developed country. More than
40 countries have less than 10Mbps of international Internet
bandwidth, whereas in Belgium, a 9Mbps ADSL high-speed Internet
package is available for just EUR 60 a month.
* There are still 30 countries with an Internet penetration of
less than 1%
* The 14% of the world’s population that lives in the G8 countries
accounts for 34% of the world’s total mobile users.
* Of Africa’s 26 million fixed lines, over 75% are found in just 6
of the 55 African nations.
* Africa has an average of 3 fixed lines per 100 people.
* The Americas region has an average of 34 fixed lines per 100
* Europe and the CIS has an average of 40 fixed lines per 100
Does anybody know where I can find a list of malayalam words? Is a compilation of words copyrightable? How about mathematical models derived from such compilations? If a freely usable list does not exist, can we approach some literary organization to help make one available? Such word lists and corpora are essential for developing models for software like OCR. While individuals can work on aspects related to algorithms, it is extremely difficult to build their own databases for such purposes.
Thanks in advance,
Society for Promotion of Alternative Computing and Employment (SPACE),
Kerala, invites applications for its Small Research Grant programme to
projects in the area of FLOSS (Free Libré and Open Source Software).
SPACE invites developers/researchers/programmers (practitioners as
well as students) to propose projects in the area of FLOSS (Free Libré and
Open Source Software) applications. These projects can be
software development or research initiatives, or associated tasks such
as localization or documentation. Some of the priority areas under
this programme are :
- Local language computing
- Solutions for Small and Medium Businesses
Some ideas for your thought:
- OCR for Malayalam
- Tools for School Education
- Mini ERP for SMEs
- Software for Microcredit for Self Help Groups
We are looking for original ideas as well as contributions to existing
Free Software projects.
Please send your project proposal to
109 Mangalam Lane,
a rough format of proposal available at
SPACE, the Society for Promotion of Alternative Computing and
Employment, is a registered society that has members from academia, IT
industry, professional societies such as IEEE and Computer Society of
India, and IT Administration of the Government of Kerala. The vision
of SPACE is to promote Free, Libré and Open Source Software (FLOSS) in
academics, governance and individual use, and supporting advocating
the use FLOSS for employment generation in Kerala.
Free Software, Free Society <http://fsfs.hipatia.net/wiki>
Society for Promotion of Alternative Computing and Employment is
is an intiative for promotion of Free software in Kerala.
We are looking for candiates with basic knowledge of GNU/Linux
Operating System and philosophy and good organisational
skills. Applicant must have conversational skills in Malayalam
language. Programming skills in GNU/Linux Operating System is
advantageous. Send your resume to contact(a)space-kerala.org
Free Software, Free Society <http://fsfs.hipatia.net/wiki>
TUX is the "first and only magazine for the new [GNU]Linux user". See
http://www.tuxmagazine.com Currently issue number 8 (November 2005) is
available on "the stands". What more, it's available for a free
I did download the issue of May 2005. Just as an illustration, here are
some of the easy-to-understand articles it contains:
* Can anyone use [GNU]Linux?
* Viva La [GNU]Linux Desktop Revolucion
* Q&A with Mango Parfait. Mango Parfait introduces herself,
answers her own questions with astounding facility and
invites you to ask her your own questions. Don't be shy.
There are no stupid questions, only stupid answers.
* Home Plate: Movies and More -- Life with Xine
* Suited up: The Cuts and Pastes of OpenOffice.org Productivity
* Tux Explains: Linking Users with Their Data
* Tux Explains: Be the Master of All You Survey: Using Konqueror for
File Management and Domination.
* Tux Explains: All about Screensavers, and Why you Want to Run Them
* Tux Explains: Going Guru -- Michael's Top GIMP Tips
* Reviews: Adding PDF Power to OpenOffice.org * Abiword *
Gaim * Rhythmbox * Totem Movie Player
* The light and dark side of [GNU]Linux multimedia... Did you know that
all these films include computer animation rendered using GNU/Linux?
The movies are: The Incredibles, Shrek, Shrek 2, Lord of the Rings,
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Titanic, Ice Age, Spawn,
Spirit, Stallion of the Cimarron, Sphere, Peter Pan, Bunny,
Barbie of Swan Lake, Joe Fly & Sanchez, Los Gringos and
The Night of the Headless Horsemen.
Frederick 'FN' Noronha | http://fn-at-google.notlong.com
Saligao, Goa, India | fred(a)bytesforall.org
Independent Journalist | +91(832)2409490 Cell 9822122436
How to help Free/Open Source Projects
I am writing this article after I took into account if i was doing
something for promoting Open/Free Source Projects .
How many times has that rescue CD we use has saved Us?
How many times has the free/Open source software that comes bundled
with some Gnu/Linux Distro proved a lot to us or that Live Gnu/Linux
Cd helped us and we have felt proud of possessing that
How many times we have been able to stand up against pirated software
with our help high along with the Free/Open Source software that works
along with other copyrighted Platforms as well ?
How many times have we been helped by some expert on any forum?
I hope not many of us can take into account the above in pure numeric terms .
What Have we done to promote Free/Open source related projects?
Very few of these projects have the support of sponsors(maybe 2%-5% of
these projects)These projects do require some encouragement and some
monetary encouragement also to survive with the resources required to
keep them running.
Good projects receive some donations in form of Money or resources
such as Internet Bandwidth (Mirror for downloading software),Computer
Hardware for their development or Server . I do not know about any
team that has been making big profits from the donations they receive
. These just suffice them to keep their projects alive and kicking.
Helping these projects is necessary as they provide this premium
collection of software for free .Else they will also start charging
for the premium version or to sign up for some help forum.Already some
Distros and Software Vendors have started following this
strategy.After all they too need to upgrade themselves to survive.
These projects can e helped in some way or the other
some of them that i could think of
Donate some Money directly to these Organizations.
A good way can be through affero.net ,from where you can choose
various organizations who will benefit from any money you donate.(the
minimum amount you can donate is 5$)
Buy the Free Cds that are available for download, directly from these
Organizations ,that way also you can help them and you can get some
more premium service.
Many of these Organization carry ads of their sponsors, these can
fetch some some money(although meagre) for the User Clicks they
generate.Visiting their sponsors can also help them.
Help them while offering a Download Mirror for their Software/Distro,
this wil reduce the Bandwidth Cost for such Organizations.In india
there is dearth of such download mirrors.Corporates/Educational
Institutes can get involved here if they provide the required
bandwidth for non-office hours only.
There are many other ways for helping these organizations. I do not
know how many of us might have helped such Organizations but i think a
sum of 5$-20$ can be donated on a yearly basis to any such
An interesting article from Guido Sohne guido at sohne.net on the GKD
mailing list. -FN
From: On Behalf Of Guido Sohne
Sent: November 4, 2005 6:26 PM
Subject: [GKD] Some Differences Between Free and Proprietary Software
Dear GKD Members:
I wrote this with the intent of informing decision makers who are facing
a decision of 'open source' versus 'proprietary software' to understand
the choice they are making by explaining the context in an approachable
Some Differences Between Free And Proprietary Software
This article is an attempt to dissect some differences between free and
proprietary software in an accessible manner, free from jargon and the
techno-gobbledegook dialect favored by some technical people.
* Two Different Worlds
Proprietary software is created by organizations that seek to maximize
profit by restricting production. The usual and common objective of such
organizations is to operate and maintain a continued revenue stream, for
maximum profit. Restricted production and the continued revenue
objective result in a dependency syndrome for users - they can't ever
Proprietary software is mainly provided by companies that use the
access-restrictions of copyright laws to maintain well-defined segments
across their markets as well as to maintain barriers to market entry by
competitors as a means of maximizing revenue across market segments by
trying to minimize the costs of dealing with competitive threats, thus
helping to maximize profits.
>From a modern microeconomic perspective the business secret aspect of
intellectual property is only one part of a multi-faceted set
ofprofit-maximization tactics firms can and do employ, in either freely
competitive, oligopolized or monopolized markets.
Other related tactics include marketing and support expenditures that
can make market entry more expensive or that can help lock-in consumers.
Firms engaged in such behaviour, often are unwilling to share their
technologies, especially those beyond the development capacity of most
of the market, as an additional means of restricting competition by
restricting the availability of the product.
Free software, on the other hand, has no profit motivations as its basis
for organization. Instead, free software seeks to ensure that there are
as few restrictions to software production as possible. Free software
does not make a distinction between the level of access granted to the
product given to its users and that given to its developers.
Free software maximizes the potential for production to occur.
Unfettered by the profit motive and guided by higher ideals of freedom,
sharing and communal ownership of knowledge, free software is more
oriented towards the product and its development and far less attuned to
anti-competitive business strategies, necessitated by its goal of
minimizing restriction to the software product.
It is important to note here, that this sort of anti-competitive
behaviour described is not limited to the software industry but rather
permeates much of the status quo for business practices in industries
that produce digital goods (software, music, film). The popular
grassroots movement that is the basis of the increased usage and utility
of free software is at the core, a rejection of this anti-competitive
behaviour and this is evident in their clarion call for increased
* Licensing of Software
Software licenses are contracts attached to the software, either in raw
or finished form, that determine the expectations, rights and
obligations of the parties to the contract. As used by software
producing organizations, licenses are primarily a means to either
restrict, or ensure access to the product in both its raw and finished
Restricted production licenses usually differentiate between access to
the product in its raw form and in its finished form. Such licenses
often only grant access to users on the basis they are the only
permitted user of the finished form of the software product that has
been given access to the software. Other users must also buy licenses
for continued revenue and maximum profit.
Free software licenses operate by removing the distinction between raw
and finished form, emphasizing the raw form as the actual software
product. If the software comes in finished form, the raw form of the
software must be present or readily accessible. This is in line with the
free software objective of ensuring that there are as few restrictions
on production as possible.
Free software licenses often block restriction of the software product
by restricting use of the software to exclude scenarios or situations
that result in restrictions being placed on the software that would have
adverse effects on production.
* Locked In Competition For Users
Software licenses are almost always centered around the user of the
software. On one hand are organizations seeking maximum profit and on
the other hand are organizations seeking maximum access (unrestricted
access to the software product).
However, developers are those with the ability to utilize unrestricted
access. In the free software world, the user can be a developer too. In
the proprietary software world, other developers are often 'the enemy'
because it is only other developers who can create a competing product.
And in between this war between worlds of developers, stands the hapless
Significant resources are devoted to proprietary software in order for
it to appeal and compete for the expenditure of users. Restricting
users' access to the software by supplying it solely in finished form
causes more effort to be placed into making the software usable by
ordinary users (as opposed to developers).
In this manner, proprietary software evolves to be biased heavily to the
ordinary user, often at the same time making it hard or impossible for
other developers (who are also users of the software) to work with the
software in its raw form. The proprietary software approach of
restricting production to finished form also biases the productive
options available to overwhelmingly favor the organization owning the
In the case of companies like Microsoft, whose software comes
preinstalled on the vast majority of computers being sold, the user
often has no choice but to use the software. Any other route often
results in more work for the user. They have to go and find some other
software and get it installed. When they do so, they encounter
incompatibilities, which incidentally, are in favor of Microsoft
maintaining its monopoly by making it easier just to stay with Microsoft
products, which of course, work well together.
The resulting state of affairs is in total contradiction to the free
software goal of ensuring minimal restrictions on software production
and software choice for the end user or individual developer. Free
software accomplishes this by predominantly taking a 'laissez-faire'
approach to ordinary users as well as to its developers.
The only restriction faced by developers when producing free software is
in integrating their own improvements to the source code. This
restriction arises from the free software goal of maximizing the
efficiency of software production.
If there are no restrictions on changes to the raw form of the product,
it quickly becomes buggy or unstable unless the developers are of
equivalent skill or are familiar with the code involved, otherwise it
devolves into a hodgepodge that just doesn't work. Only well thought
out and well tested changes should ideally make it into the software
product, and even this is best done in a gradual, incremental manner.
This necessary mechanism for restricting software production in a manner
that maximizes efficiency takes the shape of the other developers of the
software, who by fiat, consensus, war, politics or rewriting the
affected code constitute a peer review mechanism operating around the
goal of production efficiency within their common visions and
Developers have the choice to do what they please and often prefer to do
what pleases them at the expense of the ordinary user, who is assumed
not to understand the specific benefits of the particular improvement.
On the other hand, users or organizations have the opportunity to
encourage developers by giving them incentives to work on improvements
preferred by the user.
This interplay between the two types of users (technical and
non-technical) of free software evolves into a symbiotic relationship,
where the developer has no reason to work if no one will use his work,
and the users have no choice but to depend on a developer to do what
they cannot do for them. Both benefit, each contributing to the
resources needed for production.
* Differences in Organization of Labor
The mode in which labor (developers working to maintain or enhance the
product) is organized differs between the proprietary and commercial
Organizations producing proprietary software, being mostly driven by the
profit motive, and restricting production need to be able to control
ownership of the software and at the same time utilize developers to
make changes or improvements to the software while maximizing profit.
Organizations producing free software are often places where individuals
interested in producing the software are employed because the
organization and the individual have aligned interests for the software.
This is because the free software development process is organized on
the basis of individuals. Organizations are represented only by an
individual, and such individuals have influence proportionate to their
contribution to the software product. Free software often operates as a
self organized, developer centric culture resting on individual
reputation and esteem in the eyes of the rest of the team.
Comparing the two methods of production, it could be concluded that
proprietary software developers seek to maximize income while free
software developers seek to maximize their contribution to, and
influence over, the software product itself.
* Mode Of Production
In order to achieve this, these organizations hire developers and pay
them for their contribution to the software product. Done as a work for
hire, the ownership of the product, primarily exercised through
copyright, remains with the organization that hired the developer.
The cost of developers and the general cost of doing business translates
into a total cost for production that must be recouped by sales to
users. The price at which the product is sold depends on how many users
choose to use the software, or how many users are compelled or coerced
to use the software.
With free software, the general cost of doing business is often
incidental and not central to the objectives of people or organizations
producing it. Maximum access to successful free software products often
results in multiple organizations making changes or contributions to the
If one of the organizations participating in the free software
development process disappears or changes its objectives and abandons
the software, the other organizations are not affected. At the same
time, the developers working on free software are often still available
to different degrees of availability even when their organization
collapses, because the raw form of the software product is not
restricted to the organization only. They can continue working and may
even join the organizations remaining.
Due to this, the free software development process results in software
products that exhibit robustness even in the face of adverse economic
circumstances. In such cases, the efficiency of development is even
increased because the developers will have more time to work on changes
to the products that they prefer, while being underemployed with respect
to potential output. The ability to utilize underemployment effectively
is a strong contributing factor to the efficiency of the free software
Additionally, free software development reduces the perceived cost of
developing software by distributing the cost of development across all
the participants in the process. This is in contrast to the proprietary
software development process, where the cost of development is
distributed across the user base and results in lower prices for the
user. These lower prices are partly due to the increased supply due to
the absence of restricted production.
Proprietary and free software are different approaches to producing
software products that are competing for users and resources.
Proprietary software development restricts access to the software
product by prohibiting copying but free software development encourages
access to the software product by prohibiting restrictions on copying.
Proprietary software development is most efficient at maximizing profits
but free software development is most efficient at maximizing
The choice is always up to you, the user of the software, in how to
exercise your interests.
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